Monday, 31 March 2014

Is your communication & engagement in the blogosphere 'sophisticated and impressive'?

Yes! We all have opinions and beliefs and we represent a diverse range of backgrounds with those opinions and beliefs. It's good to have integrity and to be able to offer a cogent argument and present your ideas with conviction. But do we as teachers practise what we preach when it comes to communicating and adapting language, and interacting and responding? Are we doing so in 'sophisticated and impressive' ways, or are we limited with room for development?

I've just been putting together a marking grid for a raft of speaking & listening assessments I'll be running with my GCSE English students next week and I thought it'd be brilliant if everyone on blog discussion forums aimed for the Band 5 (Grade A) assessment criteria:

  • Communicating & Adapting Language
    • Student highlights priorities and essential detail when communicating complex and demanding subject matter (yes, everyone in blog discussions seem to be quite good at that)
    • Student uses a sophisticated repertoire of strategies to meet challenging contexts and purposes (introduction of Venn diagrams sometimes helps ;-))
    • Shows an assured choice and flexible use of standard English vocabulary and grammar in appropriate situations (yes, everyone's brilliant at that too)
  • Interacting & Responding
    • Student sustains concentrated listening, showing understanding of complex ideas through interrogating what is said (it sometimes seems that this is where things start to go to pot - do people really 'listen' and 'interrogate' enough... not with the Gestapo light shining in your face, but seeking to clarify and really understand the other person's point of view and where they are coming from...)
    • Student shapes direction and content of talk, responding with flexibility to develop ideas and challenges assumptions (I sometimes wonder if people could be a little more flexible with a view to developing ideas in blog discussions, rather than remaining so entrenched... I've been accused of being entrenched so I'm guilty of this too sometimes - does integrity have to equate to total rigidity? If you might be wrong, at what point do you engage with that possibility? To challenge assumptions you do have to work out where the other person is coming from and why they hold their ideas.)
    • Student initiates, develops and sustains discussion through encouraging participation and interaction, resolving differences and achieving positive outcomes (I don't think we value this one enough and we all need to work on this... even if it does seem like our ideas are at the opposite end of a schematic diagram)..
All comments welcome :-)

Monday, 24 March 2014

Culture, Diversity & Multinational Environment Bibliographic Reference List

Just blogging more stuff I'm sharing with my MSc dissertation cohort at the moment; today's topics include culture, diversity and multinationals. Again, this is just a list of references amalgamated after my group from last year found them, so it's already a year old. I'm hoping that this year's group will put this to good use but also find some new and interesting sources published in the meantime as well. As I said in the other post with the conflict bibliography, the students will need to sift through stuff like this to see what is relevant and not, and use the material to help answer their own research questions. The aim of the game is to provide a descriptive, explanatory and critical literature review, maybe incorporating systematic review methods, and providing a synthesised, newly conceptualised set of outcomes applied to their research question based on project management. All good fun :-)

Bibliographic Reference List on Culture, Diversity and the Multinational Environment


Appelbaum, S., Shapiro, B. and Elbaz, D. (1998). The management of multicultural group conflict. Team Performance Management, 4(5), 211-234.


Aycan, Z., and Kanungo, R.N. (2000). Impact of culture on human resource management practices: a ten-country comparison. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(1), 192-221.


Ayoko, O.B. (2007). “Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups”. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14 (2), 105-124.


Barinaga, E. (2007), Cultural Diversity at work: National Culture as a discourse organising an international project group, Human Relations, 60(2), 315-340.


Bassett, N. (2005). The Paradox of Diversity Management, Creativity and Innovation. Diversity Management, Creativity & Innovation, 14(2), 169-175.


Beamish, P.W., Delios, A. and Lecraw, D.J. (1997). Japanese Multinationals in the Global Economy. Basingstoke: Edward Elgar.


Bond, M.H. (2002). Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede’s ecological analysis – a 20 year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 73-77.


Boros, S., Meslec, N., Curseu, P.L., and Emons, W. (2010). Struggles for cooperation: conflict resolution strategies in multicultural groups. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, 539-554.


Brief, A.P., Umprhress, E.E., Dietz, J., Burrows, J. W. & Butz, R.M. (2005). Community Matters: Realistic Group Conflict Theory & The Impact of Diversity, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 48, no.5, pp 830-844.


Bristow, J. and Ridgeway, C. (1994). Competence in Managing Internationally. Competency. 2(2), 34-36.


Broadbeck, F., Guillaume, Y. and J. Lee, N. (2011). Ethnic Diversity as a Multilevel Construct: The Combined Effects of Dissimilarity, Group Diversity and Societal Status on Learning Performance in Work Groups, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(7), 1198-1218.


Chevrier, S. (2003). Cross-cultural management in multinational project groups, Journal of World Business, 38(1), 141-149.


Chiang, F. (2005). A critical examination of Hofstede’s thesis and its application to international reward management, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(9), 1545-1563.


Cox, T.H., Lobel, S.A. and McLeod P.L. (1991). Effects of Ethnic Group Cultural Differences on Cooperative and Competitive Behaviour on a Group Task, Academy of Management Journal, 34(4), 827-847.


Dadfar, H. and Gustavsson, P. (1992). Competition by Effective Management of Cultural Diversity, International Studies of Management & Organisation, 22(4), 81-92.


Earley, P. and Mosakowski, E. (2000). Creating hybrid team cultures: an empirical test of transnational team functioning, Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 26-49.


Ely, R. and Thomas, D. (2001). Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes & Outcomes, Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(1), 229-273.


Feely, A.J. and Harzing, A. (2003). Language Management in Multinational Companies, Cross-Cultural Management, 10(2), 37-52.


Fernandez, D., Carlson, D., Stepina, L. and Nicholson, J. (1997). Hofstede’s country classification 25 years later, The Journal of Social Psychology; 137(1), 43-54.


Gamble, J. and Tian, A. (2012). Intra-national variation in organisational commitment: evidence from the Chinese context, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1(1), 1-23.


Gannon, M. J. (1994). Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 17 Countries. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Gersten, M. (1990). Intercultural competence and expatriates, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1(3), 241-262.


Gibson, C.B. (1996). Do you hear what I hear? A Framework for Reconciling Intercultural Communication Difficulties Arising from Cognitive Styles and Cultural Values. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.


Glaister, K.W., Husan, R. and Buckley, P. (2003). Learning to Manage International Joint Ventures. International Business Review, 12(1), 83-109.


Glinow, M., Shapiro, D., and Brett, J. (2004). Can we talk, and should we? Managing emotional conflict in multicultural teams, Academy of Management Revew, 29(4), 578-592.


Goodall, K., and Roberts, J. (2003). Only Connect: Teamwork in the Multinational. Journal of World Business, 38(1), 127-140.


Gupta, V., Hanges, P.J., and Dorman, P. (2002). Cultural Clusters: Methodology and Findings. J World Bus; 37(1):11-15.


Harquail, C.V. and Cox, T.C. (1993). Organisational culture and acculturation. In T. Cox, Jr (Ed.). Cultural diversity in organisations. Theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp.161-176.


Haas, H. and Nuesch, S. (2012). Are multinational teams more successful? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(15), 3105-3113.


Hall, E. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday.


Henderson, J. (2005), Language Diversity in International Management Teams, Int Studies of Management & Organisation, 35(1), 66-82.


Hofstede, G. (1980), Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverley Hills: Sage Publications.


Hofstede, G. (1983). Cultural Dimensions for Project Management. International Journal of Project Management 1(1), 41-48.


Hofstede, G. (1983), National Cultures in Four Dimensions: A research-based theory of cultural differences among nations. Int Studies of Management & Organisation, 8(1-2), 46-74.


Hofstede, G. (1991), Cultures and organisations: software in the mind. New York:McGraw-Hill.


Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences, 2nd Edition: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions and Organisations across Nations. England: Sage Publications.


Hofstede, G. (2002). Dimensions do not exist: a reply to Brendan McSweeney. Human Relations, 55(11), 1355-1361.


Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J. and Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organisations: software of the mind: 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.


Iles, P. and Hayers, P. (1997). Managing Diversity in Transnational Project Teams: A Tentative Model and Case Study. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 12(2), 95-117.


Kaushal, R. and Kwantes, C. (2006). The role of culture and personality in choice of conflict management strategy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(1), 579-603.


Kramsch, C. (1998). Language and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Low, S. and Shi, Y. (2001). Cultural influence on organisational process in international projects: two case studies, Work Study, 50(7), 276-285


Luijters, K., Zee, K. and Otten, S. (2008). Cultural Diversity in Organisations: Enhancing Identification by Valuing Differences. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(1), 154-163.


Makilouko, M. (2004). Coping with multicultural projects: the leadership styles of Finnish project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 22(10, 387-396.


Mead, R. (1998). International Management: Cross-Cultural Dimensions. 2nd Ed. Cambridge, Mass, US: Blackwell Business.


McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: a triumph of faith – a failure of analysis. Human Relations, 55(1), 89-118.


Minkov, M. and Hofstede, G. (2011). The evolution of Hofstede’s doctrine. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(1), 10-20.


Mohammed, U. and White, G. (2008). Culture and Conflict Management Style of International Project Managers. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(5), 3-11.


Naor, M., Linderman, K., and Schroder, R. (2010). The globalisation of operations in Eastern and Western countries: unpacking the relationship between national and organisational culture and its impact on manufacturing performance, Journal of Operations Management, 28 (2010, 194-205.


Newman, K.L., and Nollen, S.D. (1996). Culture & congruence: the fit between management practices and national culture. J Int Bus Stud; 27(4): 753-79


Ochieng, E. and Price, A. (2009). Framework for managing multicultural project teams. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 16(6), 527-218.


Ochieng, E. and Price, A (2010). Managing cross-cultural communication in multicultural construction project teams: the case of Kenya and UK. International Journal of Project Management, 28(1), 449-460.


Pheng, L. and Leong, C. (2000). Cross-cultural project management for international construction in China. International Journal of Project Management, 18(1), 307-316.


Powell, S. (2006). Article with Geert Hofstede. Human Resource Management Digest, 14(3), 12-15.


Rees-Caldwell, K., and Pinnington, A.H. (2011), National Culture Differences in Project Management: Comparing British and Arab Project Managers’ Perceptions of Different Planning Area. The British University in Dubai (BUID), Vol.30, issue 2, pp 212-227.


Rinne, T., Steel, G. and Fairweather, J. (2012). Hofstede and Shane Revisited: The Role of Power Distance and Individualism in National-Level Innovation Success. Cross-Cultural Research, 46(2), 91-108.


Schweiger, D., Atamer, T. and Calori, R. (2003). Transnational Project Teams and Networks: Making the Multinational Organisation More Effective. Journal of World Business, 38(1), 127-140.


Shachaf, P. (2007). Cultural diversity and information and communication technology impacts on global virual teams: an exploratory study. Information & Management, 45(1), 131-142.


Smith, P.B. & Peterson, M.F. (1988). Leadership, Organisations and Culture. London: Sage


Soares, A., Farhangmehr, M. and Shoham, A. (2007). Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international marketing studies. Journal of Business Research, 60(1), 277-284.


Sondergaard, M. (1994). Hofstede’s Consequences: A Study of Reviews, Citations and Replications. Organisation Studies, 15(1), 447-456.


Swierczeck, F. (1984). Culture and conflict in joint ventures in Asia. International Journal of Project Management, 12(1), 39-47.


Tang, S.F.Y., & Kirkbridge, P.S. (1996). Developing conflict management in Hong Kong: An analysis of some cross-culture implications. Management education and development, 17, 287-301.


Trompenaars F. (1993), Riding the waves of culture, London: Economist Books.


Vanderstraeten, J. and Matthyssens, P. (2008). Country classification and the cultural dimension: a review and evaluation. International Marketing Review, 25(2), 230-251.


Welch and Schwartz, S.H. (1994). Beyond Individualism and Collectivism: New Cultural Dimensions of Values. In: Kim, U., Triandis, H.C., Ksgitcibasi, C., Choi, S.C. and Yoon, G. (eds). Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method and Applications, Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 85-199


Wood, L. (1998). Negotiation skills: dealing across the cultures. Financial Times (Business Education). P4


Zheng, W., Yang, B. and Mclean, G. (2010). Linking Organisational Culture, Structure, Strategy and Organisational Effectiveness: Mediating Role of Knowledge Management. Journal of Business Research, 63 (2010), 763-771.

Sunday, 23 March 2014

Poetry Challenge: Anti Lesson Obs Theme :-)

Yesterday evening I was feeling a tad poetic, so I set the following challenge on Twitter:

"In iambic pentameter, with ABAB assonance rhyme, write a quatrain stanza against lesson obs"
So far two fellow tweeters replied with a poetic response. The first came from Fran Nantongwe (@FranNantongwe):

"I've planned this lesson to the nth degree;
The students know in spades just what's expected.
But one arrives in tears and flusters me:
NO PROGRESS MADE. Appeals are all rejected."
You may notice that there are 11 syllables on some of the lines, and not 10... Fran is making use of the feminine ending, which, if following Shakespeare's style in Hamlet, can indicate a certain level of distress on the theme being delivered. Very apt for this topic, I thought :-)

The second response came from Rory Gallagher (@EddieKayshun), who wrote:

"If they come in with frowns and stand apart
from time and from teacher and from student
I will laugh and no more play the part
but teach as I see fit - how imprudent! :-) " 
Since those first two @cazzypot also added her own splendiferous, heartfelt contribution (you can feel the indignation and emotional torture here! :-)):

"The sweat pricks my brow and runs down my face
They enter the room with clipboards in hand
I continue though my heart is a-race
They judge with guidelines that OFSTED have banned." 

Loved these and if anyone else wants to have a go and submit their own version to be added to the list above, please do either tweet me @cazzwebbo or just enter your verse in the comments below! My own attempts were as  follows :

"Scrutinised by dreaded hierarchy
Observation is ev'ry teacher's blight
Demeaned by crumbling old patriarchy
 How soon shall dawn change on this our dark night?"

"Obs give us unreliable data
We have proof in scientific research
You have to be a lesson obs hater
 And you don't want to belong to that church"
and finally...

"Unreliable! Unreliable!
At the expense of ev'ry tax payer!
 Isn't it absolutely terrible?
Time spent as an Ofsted lesson voyeur." 
(I was on a roll :-)

Come on... have a go yourself! You know you want to ;-)

Conflict & Conflict Management Bibliographic Reference List

This year's cohort of MSc students have been asking me if I can recommend any reading for them on their topic areas, so I've been putting together some lists of bibliographic references to help get them started with their dissertations. This is an amalgamation of references under topic areas that students dealt with last year as well. Therefore, the references on the lists were found last year. So there may be more recent literature to add to the lists now. Also, it may be that some of it is more relevant to a student's dissertation than other bits. They will still have to do more searching on different keywords and search terms to find the right literature to help them with their project title, research questions and objectives. So 'm hoping they won't look at this as a complete list; they still need to do their own literature search as well. I am not recommending they must read any or all of these references; they are just some that my students last year found useful and that this year's cohort might benefit from as well.

The first topic area list I am posting on is conflict d conflict management, as a few of them are dealing with that theme in some way or another. I'm going to post other lists for the other topic areas separately. Hoping this head start will be useful. If anyone else can recommend anything that isn't on the list below, please do add a note in the comments box. Thanks! Carol :-)

Bibliographic Reference List on Conflict

Acar, F. (2010). Analysing the effects of diversity perceptions and shared leadership on emotional conflict: a dynamic approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(1), 1733-1753.

 Adams, R.M. & Chang, R. (2009). Conflict, The Aristotelian Society Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary, Vol. 13, pp 116-132.

Amason, A. (1996). Distinguishing the effect of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: resolving a paradox for top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (1), 123-148.

Amason, A. & Schweiger, D.M. (1994). Resolving the paradox of conflict, strategic decision making, and organisational performance. The International Journal of Conflict Managament, Vol. 5, No. 3 (July), pp211-222.

 Anil, M., Sundar, G.B. & Roy, H. (2001). The Quality and Effectiveness of Marketing Strategy: Effects of Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict in Intraorganisational Relationships. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 24, 299-313.

Appelbaum, S., Shapiro, B. and Elbaz, D. (1998). The management of multicultural group conflict. Team Performance Management, 4(5), 211-234.

 Assael, H. (1969). Constructive Role of Interorganisational Conflict, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp 573-582.

 Ayoko, O.B. (2007). “Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups”. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14 (2), 105-124.

 Barki, H., Hartwick, J. (2004). Conceptualising the construct of interpersonal conflict, International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 15, issue 3, pp216-244.

 Brief, A.P., Umprhress, E.E., Dietz, J., Burrows, J. W. & Butz, R.M. (2005). Community Matters: Realistic Group Conflict Theory & The Impact of Diversity, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 48, no.5, pp 830-844.

 Bartunek, J.M., Kolb, D.M., & Lewicki, R (1992). Bringing Conflict Out from Behind the Scenes. In D.M.Kolb & J.M. Bartunek (Eds), Hidden conflict in organisations: Uncovering behind-the-scenes disputes, pp 209-228. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

 Boros, S., Meslec, N., Curseu, P.L., and Emons, W. (2010). Struggles for cooperation: conflict resolution strategies in multicultural groups. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, 539-554.

 Brown, L.D. (1983). Managing conflict at organisational interfaces. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

Carroll, B.A. (1970). War Termination & Conflict Theory: Value Premises, Theories and Policies, American Academy of Political & Social Science, vol. 392 pp14-29.

 Celuch, K., Bantham, J.H., & Chickery, J.K. (2011). The Role of Trust in Buyer-Seller Conflict Management, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 64, pp 1082-1088.

 Cheung, C.C. and Chuah, K.B. (1999). Conflict Management Styles in Hong Kong Industries, International Journal of Project Management, 17(6), 393-399.

 Choudrie, J. (2005). Understanding the role of communication and conflict on reengineering team development, Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 18, (1), 64-78.

 Conbere, J.P. (2001). Integrating theory research and practice in select conflict contexts. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 19, 215-236.

 Coser, L. (1964). The functions of social conflict. [New York]: Free Press of Glencoe

 Cosier, R.A., Dalton, D.R. & Taylor, L.A. (1991), Positive effects of cognitive conflict and employee voice. Employee responsibilities and rights journal, vol 4, no 1, pp6-11.

 Dahrendorf, R. (1959). Class and class conflict in industrial society. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press

 Dalton, D.R. & Cosier, R.A. (1991). Introduction to the special issue on positive conflict: conflict and employees: the right and processes to be heard. Employee responsibilities and rights journal, vol. 4, no 1, pp1-5

 DeDreu, C.K.W., Weingart, L.R. (2003). Task Versus Relationship Conflict. Team Performance and Team Member Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 741-749.

 Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict. New Haven, CT: Yale Uniersity Press.

 Deutsch, M. (1980). Fifty years of conflict. In Festinger, L. (Ed.), Retrospections on Social Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 46-77.

 Deutsch, M. (2000). Cooperation and competition. In The Handbook of Conflict Resolution Theory & Pratice (M. Deutsch & P.T Coleman eds) pp21-40. Josey-Bass Publishers, San Fransisco, CA.

 Donais, B., (2006), Workplaces that work: A guide to conflict management in union and non-union work environments, Canada Law Book.

 Evert van de V (1994). Optimizing performance by conflict stimulation. The International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 5, no. 3, pp211-222.

 Fenn, P. and Gameson, R. (1992), Construction Conflict Management and Resolutions, London: Chapman and Hall.

 Fenn, P. (2012), Commercial conflict management and dispute resolution, Oxon: Spon Press.

 Ferguson, E.A. and Cooper, J. (1987). When push comes to power: a test of power restoration theory’s explanation for aggressive conflict escalation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 8(1), 273-293.

Gallo, G. (2013). “Conflict Theory, Complexity & Systems Approach”, Systems Research and Behavioural Science, vol. 30, no.1, pp 156-175.

 Garcia, P., Bellard, E. and Schneider, S. (2003). Experiencing Diversity, Conflict and Emotions in Teams. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52(3), 413-440.

 Glasl, F. (1980). Conflict Management: Diagnose und Bhandlung von Conflict in Organisation. Conflict Management: Diagnosis and Treatment of Conflicts in Organisations. Bern, Germany: Haupt.

 Glinow, M., Shapiro, D., and Brett, J. (2004). Can we talk, and should we? Managing emotional conflict in multicultural teams, Academy of Management Revew, 29(4), 578-592.

 Halevy, N. & Eileen Y., Adam, D. (2012). Exhausting or exhilarating? Conflict as threat to interests, relationships and identities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 48, pp 530-537.

 Harris, L.C., Ogbonna, E. and Goode, M.M.H. (2008). Intra-functional conflict: an investigation of antecedent factors in marketing functions. European Journal of Marketing, 42, 453-476.

 Hendel, T., Fish, M. & Galon, V. (2005). Leadership style and choice of strategy in conflict management among Israeli nurse managers in general hospitals. Journal of Nursing Management, 13, 137-146.

 Hewstone, M., & Greenland, K. (2000). Intergroup Conflict. International Journal of Psychology, 35, 136-144.

Hocker, J.L. & Wilmot, W.W. (1995). Interpersonal Conflict (4th ed). Dubuque, IA: W.C.Brown

 Holt, R.T., Job, B.L. & Marcus, L. (1978). Catastrophe theory and the study of war. Journal of conflict resolution, 22, 171-208.

 Hon, A.H.Y. and Chan, W.W. (2013). The effects of group conflict and work stress on employee performance, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 54(2), 174-184.

 Ibbs, W. 2012. Commercial Conflict Mangment & Dispute Resolution. Construction Management & Economics, 30 (4), 333-334.

 Jeffrey, Z.R. (1994). Models of Conflict Management. Journal of Social Issues. 50, 33-45.

 Jehn, K.A. (1995). A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 256-82.

Jehn, K.A., Rispens, S., and Thatcher, S.M.B. (2012). Managing conflict in groups and teams: conflict about conflicts. In Neale, M.A., and Mannix, E.A. (ed.). Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research (Research on Managing Groups and Teams, Volume 15), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp 133-159.

 Jia, G.S., Yang, F.J., & Wang, G.B. (2011), “A study of mega project from a perspective of social conflict theory”. International Journal of Project Management, vol. 29, pp817-827.

 Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., Rosenthal, R.A. (1964). Organisational stress: studies in role conflict and ambiguity, Oxford: John Wiley.

 Kaushal, R. and Kwantes, C. (2006). The role of culture and personality in choice of conflict management strategy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(1), 579-603.

 Kelly, J. (1970). Make conflict work for you. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp103-113.

 Kerwin, S.K., Doherty, A.D. & Harman, A.H. (2011). It’s not conflict, it’s differences of opinion: an in-depth examination of conflict in nonprofit in nonprofit boards, Small Group Research, vol. 42, no.5, pp562-594.

 Kezsbom, D.S. (1992) Re-opening Pandora’s Box: Sources of Project Conflict in the 90s. Industrial Engineering, 24(5), 54-59.

 Kilmann, R.H., Thomas, K.W. (1977). Developing a Free-Choice Measure of Conflict-Handling Behaviour: The ‘mode’ instrument. Educational and psychological measurement, 37, 309.

 Kolb, D.M., & Glidden, P. (1986). Getting to know your conflict options. Personnel Administrator, 31, 77-90.

Kriesberg, L. (1973). The Sociology of Social Conflicts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

 Lam, P.K., Chin, K.S. and Pun, K.F. (2007). Managing conflict in collaborative new product development a supplier perspective. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 24 (9), 891-907.


Lancee, B., & Sergi, P. (2013). Group Conflict Theory in a Longitudinal Perspective: Analysing the Dynamic Side of Ethnic Competition. International Migration Review, vol. 47 no 1, pp 106-131


Laursen, B. & Hafen, C.A. (2009). Future directions in the study of close relationships: conflict is bad (except when it’s not). Social Development, 19, 858-872.


Leonard, G. (1986). Managing Conflict, Sloan Management Review, vol. 27, no. 4, pp45-51


Lewicki, R.J. Weiss, S.E., & Lewin, D. (1992). Models of conflict, negotiation and third party intervention: a review and synthesis. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 13. 209-252.


Lewis, J.H. (1976). Conflict Management, Journal of Nursing Administration. Vol 1, no 5, pp18-22.


Levin, R.P. (2010). Managing Staff Conflict”, Journal of the American Dental Association, vol 141, no 1, pp 97-8.


Maccoby, M., & Scudder, T. (2011). Leading in the heat of conflict. T&D, 65, 46-51.


Macionis, Gerber, John & Linda (2010), Sociology 7th Canadian Ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson, Canada Inc pp129.


Mahato, B.K., and Ogunlana, S.O. (2011). Conflict dynamics in a dam construction project: a case study. Built Environment Project & Asset Management, 1. 176-194.


Marriner, A. (1979). Conflict Theory. Superviser Nurse. Vol. 4, pp12-14.


Mack, R.W. & Snyder, R.C. (1957). The analysis of social conflict toward an overview and synthesis, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1, 212-248.


Medina, F.J., Munduate, L., Dorado, M.A., Martinez, I., Guerra, J.M. (2005), Types of intragroup conflict and affective reactions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20, 219-230.


Molnar, J. & Rogers, D. (1979). A comparative model of inter-organisational conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 405-424.


Nan, S.A. (2006). Coordination in conflict prevention, Conflict Resolution & Peacebuilding. International Negotiation vol 11, pp1-6.


Neilsen, E.H. (1972). Understanding and managing inter-group conflict. Managing group and inter-group relations, 329-343.


Nir, H. and James, J.K. (2013), Conflict Templates: Thinking Through Interdependence. Current Directions in Psychology, 22. 217-224.


Pelled, L. (1996). Demographic diversity, conflict and work group outcomes; an intervening process theory. Organisation Science, 7(1), 615-631.


Pelled, L. Eisenhardt, K., and Xin, K. (1999). Exploring the black box: an analysis of work group diversity, conflict and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1), 1-28.


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Saturday, 8 March 2014

Fitting in weight management and healthy eating around a teaching lifestyle...

Teaching requires a lot of stamina and energy, and is a mixture of sedentary and hectic, stressy, running around, mental marathon type work. There’s not much time to care for yourself, because you’re always thinking about planning lessons, assessments, marking, being observed and maybe even being graded still (“Just say no!” J ). When you come home your time still isn’t your own. It’s all too easy to slump in front of the TV with books to mark and a bottle of red and comfort food to see you through to midnight. And once you get to bed, how many sit and tweet through the edu-blogging, tweacher world for more than half an hour? Before you know it, you’re waking up, angry at the alarm clock, resisting the urge to keep your eyes closed and stay buried beneath the duvet.

Before the clock does strike twelve though, who has given a thought to packing themselves up with healthy food for the next day? Who has time or energy for that? Maybe many try to, so a round of applause for them. But if you don’t, maybe it’s for that reason it’s so easy to pile on a few extra pounds from one half term to the next. Trying to stay feeling ‘good in your skin’ and at least a little bit fit and healthy is on the minds of many, but with so many other things on our minds it’s a battle to really keep up a healthy eating regime.

This is something that I’ve given a lot of time, thought and energy to at different points in my life, I work on it for a bit, see good results… and then something comes along and it all gets pushed aside and forgotten about again. But I do believe you’ve just got to keep on trying, and just keep getting back on the wagon. A healthy, balanced diet and a schedule including regular exercise have got to be something to aspire to, haven’t they?

So, with this in mind, in case there’s anyone else out there in the edu-blogging, tweaching world with a similar state of mind, I thought I’d share some of my own top tips and lessons learned: things that work for me.

Firstly, I have to thank a friend I’ve now lost touch with, who once sent me a link to a YouTube video that basically turned my thinking around on dieting, eating healthily and weight loss. It was called, “nutrition tips” (found at, and is a 1 hour 52 minute long lecture given by a body builder. “Oh no! A body builder?” I hear you groan and see you shake your head, already turning off to this. But wait! Don’t dismiss this so quickly. Think about it. Body builders – the professional experts – know what to do to get their body to look a certain way. That’s because they understand the science and mechanics of metabolism, muscles and the effects of exercise on the body. While you might not want to look like a top-heavy, muscle-bound body-builder, you might want to listen to what they have to say about what you could be doing to maintain a normally functioning body, at its optimum state of health, which in turn normally means losing a lot of unwanted flab and fat in the process.

If you watch the YouTube video I’ve provided the link for above, you will learn the following:

  • You need 1g of protein per 1lb of body weight per day, just to maintain normally healthy skin, body, muscles, hair, etc.
  • If you are a body-builder you might be aiming to increase that intake to 2g or even up to 4g of protein per 1lb of body weight per day: to BUILD muscle.
  • If you don’t want to build muscle and bulk up, that’s fine, but as an adult you still need a minimum of 1g of protein per 1lb of body weight, per day, just to maintain a normally functioning and healthy body.
  • Carbohydrates are a form of energy and are fuel for activity and should be taken after exercise to replace lost energy, with sensibleness.
  • The carbohydrates you need though are FIBROUS carbohydrates, not the stodgy bread and pie type carbs, or the sugary ones either.
  • We do need fats, but the ones we need are ESSENTIAL fats, not the excessive fats that lead to excessive body weight and heart disease.
  • We do need exercise, but that’s not the only way to burn energy: whenever we eat something we are also burning energy through use of the metabolism. This is the reason why eating little and often of the right thing is so effective for weight management of any kind.
So, how many lbs do you weigh? From this you can work out how much protein you should be taking in, minimum, per day (remember: 1g of protein per lb of body weight). So if you weigh 10 stone, that’s 140 lbs, which means that by this formula, you should be on a minimum of 140g of protein per day.

If you have 140g of protein as your target minimum intake, you then need to split this up into a number of mini-meals, to eat as small snacks, with fibrous carbs and essential fats throughout the day. You need a set of weighing scales. You need to look on food labels to find out how much protein there is in the stuff you want to eat so you calculate the right amount of protein by weight properly. Ideally, it would be best if you could have one of these mini meal snacks at hourly intervals throughout the day. So if you got up and had a mini meal breakfast at 7, then one when you got to work at 8am, and then a mini meal on the hour, every hour, until and including 6pm… you’d be doing great (fasting after 6pm is also highly recommended because you are not normally using energy after that time). The only thing holding you back is whether your working life through the day really allows you to do this. But don't despair, you could also re-calculate your daily protein target and divide by 8 or 10, instead of 12, and just fit the mini meals in around other normal breaks and lunch hours. Also, you’re going to need to invest in about 12 small lunchboxes and a little cool bag to keep your daily nibbles in. And, you’re going to need to set aside a good half hour or so in an evening to prepare your mini meals for the next day.

Sources of protein include: fish, meat, egg whites, zero fat Greek yoghurt (the one called “Total” is great), and low fat cottage cheese. If you are getting sick of eating this type of solid stuff all the time throughout the day, you could have a protein shake once in a while instead.

Fibrous carbs (mainly ‘plant’ foods) include: nearly all vegetables ... artichoke, eggplant, nuts, whole grain bran, broccoli, peas, lima beans, squash, carrots, spinach, peppers, mushrooms, legumes, whole grains… etc. Don't forget fruit like raspberries and blueberries either. 

Sources of essential fats (basically Omega 3 & 6 type stuff) include: fish, shellfish, flaxseed/linseed, hempseed, soya oil, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, leafy vegetables and walnuts. You could also take a supplement.  

Play around to find the foods you like from these lists. Don’t miss out on the fibrous carbs and essential fats. There are dangers with high protein diets if people don’t also supplement correctly and balance with fibrous carbs and essential fats. Also, don’t eat too much of one source of protein ever; this can lead to food allergies. You definitely need to mix it up a little. And remember, if you’ve done some exercise and burned some energy, you’re allowed a carb based treat to replace lost energy… but don’t be daft… that doesn’t mean silly cheesecake or gateaux; it means an oatcake or oaty flapjack or something.

Another thing to remember: try to drink plenty of water... if you feel sick it might be because you are dehydrated. I like to aim for 2 litres of water a day, but often fail to reach that. I certainly get through 750ml at the gym really easily.

Have you got any healthy eating tips? How do you manage to fit your regime around your working life? I’d love to hear…

Sunday, 2 March 2014

6 lessons from Anthropology that put me off lesson observations

What is anthropology? Study of humans in many forms really. A step beyond but including a lot of sociology. Get's more into deep understanding of diversity, social & kinship systems, comparison from one ethnic/cultural group to another. I should apologise if I'm too glib and skim the surface here; any anthropologists out there might be able to do a much better job of giving an overview.

My intent is just to share some highlights that studying the subject left me with that have influenced the way I see the world in general until now and that I think add a bit of weight to the anti-lesson observation campaign.

I did a year of BA Human Sciences at Durham Uni (1997/98) but wanted to focus more on Social Anthropology so started again the year after at UCL in London to read BA Ancient History & Social Anthropology (1998-2001). A big intro to the subject was via the studies on the Trobriand Islands, which can be found next to Papua New Guinea in the Indonesian Solomon Sea. It's called the Kiriwina Islands now, but back during WW1 an anthropologist called Malinowski did a lot of work on the exchange of sea shells between the islanders, called the Kula. There's a matrilineal clan based kinship system and lots more that made the Trobriand islanders interesting to study. Have a quick look on Wikipedia for a fascinating, yet brief, introduction.

Modules I covered at UCL under the umbrella of Anthropology included: introductory social anthropology, linking ancient history & social anthropology (in that you can treat the past like another country), introduction to kinship & social organisation, theory and method in history and social anthropology, material culture and social theory, individual studies in anthropology & history (I looked at Ovid's 'Pygmalion' as a metaphor for creating one's ideal other and compared it to other Pygmalion stories), anthropology of mass consumption, and current issues in the study of gender and sexuality. Other modules were on ancient history.

As I mentioned above I'd already done a year at Durham and the Human Sciences course there focused on a wider range of anthropological subjects, including: physical, medical, health, biological, ways of life, diversity... all fascinating. Anyway, regarding big things I took away from the subject that for me add weight as to why lesson observations are a poor method to get to the heart of what is going on in schools or classrooms, these are my 6 big take homes:

1) Etic vs. Emic: The outsider analytical view of something vs. the insider meaning based understanding of something. For example, if you study a group of people from the outside looking in (etic), then that might appear objective and provide a variety of facts identifiable from an external viewpoint, but would probably lack a lot of understanding on why people are doing things and what it means to them personally; for that level of understanding you'd go to the emic. For this reason, being the outsider looking in isn't that desirable. You need to go native.

2) Imperialism: When one cultural, ethnic or other social group thinks they have some kind of superiority over another group, and then this justifies disparaging them, trying to control and change them, and rule over them. This happened a lot in history, and the way studies of other ethnic groups were relayed often denigrated them in some way as lesser beings.

3) The other: If 'we' look at 'them', then 'they' are 'the other'. But aren't they looking back at us, too? We looked at them and saw they were different to us, and them over there as well, another kind of different, and them and them, too. Goodness, then you realise everyone's different, don't you? So it's not them that's different after all, it's us, the ones looking, me and you. If you are 'an other' can you really understand what's going on? Again, don't you have to go native or get really good first person accounts from natives to really get to the heart of a matter?

4) Frame of reference: If you're going to talk about another group of people or some phenomenon or other, because it's not just them that's different, but me and you as well, then you need to outline where you're coming from yourself, first. So, what's your frame of reference? How do you see the world epistemologically and ontologically? If you are judging something or someone, it will say more about the way you see the world rather than giving a lot of meaningful depth and understanding about what you are judging. So if you are observing, state your own preferences and explain your reasons; they may end up not being relevant at all to the context in question.

5) Phenomenology: Looking at things in terms of experience and consciousness, where the world is comprised of objects, sets of objects, and objects acting and reacting upon one another. Are you just looking at objects (evidence)? Or are going the extra mile from an experiential viewpoint?

6) Ethnography: Writing about a culture or a group. Ethnographies are great. They are rich pictures and thick descriptions of real life. Through ethnographies you can really communicate your own frame of reference and an emic, insider account that really conveys meaning and understanding from the perspective of those you are interacting with.

So how do these 6 points relate to why I think lesson observations are a poor man's choice for understanding what's going on?

Because in this scenario, Ofsted are the imperialist regime that set standards for teaching and learning. This imperialism then filters down into schools who seek approval from the imperialist overloads, and in turn establish their own imperialist hierarchies to reinforce the standards dictated. Ofsted send out imperialist representatives, who get an etic, outsider, observational perspective on what's going on, without really understanding the true meaning from the perspective of teachers or students. Because they observe, they establish themselves as 'the other'. In then encouraging observation as a practice to continue within schools, the people carrying out observations do so as 'the other' as well, the outsider looking in. When observing and writing up an observation report the observers don't provide an account of their own frame of reference so that it can be understood why they judged something a certain way, they just look at a range of objects (evidence) objectively, and without the experiential/participant dimension. What would really provide a rich and meaningful account might be an ethnographical account, inter-subjective, narrative with thick description. It's my feeling that lesson study is the only thing so far that attempts to go in this direction.

Saturday, 1 March 2014

Organise seminars, invite people to speak, and present your own ideas too!

Occasionally in life, when you're working hard and producing lots of outputs in a certain field, people get to know about you, meet you, go away and think of you and ask you to come along and share what you are doing with other people they know at events they are organising. I've had the privilege of such invitations a few times while I was in HE. Why not organise your own seminar sessions and invite people to speak, while even presenting your own work at the same time? It's a great way to network, share ideas and get inspired. It's also life enriching to be able to participate in interest groups in this way. Here's a summary of the places I've been invited to speak... yes, even in China :-) ...
·        Sheffield Hallam University 4th March 2009: A Complexity Science Taster Session: Implications for Organisational Practice”, a lunchtime seminar by Dr Carol Webb in the ‘Thinking Person’s Lunch’ Seminar Programme, hosted by the Centre for Individual & Organisational Development (CIOD).

·        CASS Business School (City of London) – 9th April 2008: “Working With Complexity: Inspiration from Complexity Science”, an evening seminar by Dr Carol Webb in the ‘Complexity, Conversation & Change’ series, hosted by the 'Centre of Leadership, Learning and Change' (sponsored by Towers Perrin) in a series of evening workshops introducing the latest approaches in organisational change.

·        University of Salford, School of the Built Environment – 2nd July 2007: “An Introduction to Complex Systems - Six Principles of Complexity Science”, a ½ day presentation and facilitated workshop by Dr Carol Webb that took place at the beginning of a one-week EPSRC funded short course, ‘Embracing Complexity in the Built Environment: a taught course for researchers’

·        University of Liverpool, School of Architecture – 6 November 2006: “An Introduction to Complex Adaptive Systems Theory & Six Principles of Complexity Science”, a ½ day presentation and facilitated workshop by Dr Carol Webb that took place at the beginning of a one-week EPSRC funded short course, ‘Embracing Complexity in Science & Society: A taught course for researchers in the built environment’

·        Beihang University, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, China24 November 2005: “Complexity Science and Management Theory: An Introduction and Recent Work”, a guest lecture by Carol Webb, addressing a forum of doctoral researchers from the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Organise & host workshops: people need people, especially researchers :-)

Being part of a vibrant research culture is great, but you have to take the initiative to spearhead a few activities yourself to fan the flames of passion around it. One thing I really got into while a research assistant then research officer at Cranfield University was motivating myself to want to write journal papers, so I made it a personal mission at the time to read all around that topic as well. Because of that I was able to develop a PhD level journal paper writing workshop on the topic, You can write as many journal papers as you want”. Management encouraged it and 23 of us got together under this umbrella in September 2005. It was an enjoyable session and I remember many coming out of the meeting freshly inspired with new journal paper writing goals. It certainly helped me to focus on those goals, and achieve a few of them, and I like to think it helped others in that group as well.

Other sessions I developed for PhD level students included:

·        An Introduction to Complex Adaptive Systems Theory, & Key Concepts & Principles of Complexity Science

·        Implications of Complexity Science for Qualitative Research

·        Facilitation of a “Complexity Science Research Surgery”.
All of these took place in the one-week short course, ‘Complexity Science for Beginners’ (this ran 3 times in 2006), run by Cranfield University, under funding obtained from the EPSRC.
People need people, and none more so than researchers. It can be a lonely activity engaging in a PhD, but you don't need to keep it that way. Liven it up and get involved in stuff. If there isn't anything going on that you are interested in, develop something for your niche area and just do it! :-)

Get involved in groups, communities and networks for research and learning

Being in a gaggle of geese is much better than being Neddy the lonely donkey. Not only that, when you're in networks and groups you learn lots of new things, expose yourself to interesting ideas and meet with opportunities you hadn't expected. For those reasons I was keen to try and get involved in different communities and networks as a researcher. As a result I ended up meeting lots of great people, getting invited to other things and taking on bits of responsibility in different groups. These are some of the things I got involved in during my time in HE (2002 to 2009):

·        Invited Senior Agile Project Management (APM) Advisor for the Institute of Management and Regional Economics at Lucerne School of Business, Switzerland, 1 May 2008 to 30 October 2009, in collaboration with the IRE (Innovating Regions in Europe) Network.
·        Senior KM Advisor for the Dubai Holding European Benchmarking Programme, Amsterdam, 27 April – 1 May 2008, with the Centre for Integral Excellence, Sheffield Hallam University, in collaboration with Philips High Tech Campus and KPMG.

 ·        Invited Member of Expert Panel for 2008 MAKCi Awards: assessing progress achieved by global communities engaging in formal and systematic development processes under the flag of Knowledge Cities; pursuing understanding of complex knowledge-based processes

 ·        (American) Academy of Management (AOM) membership 2007 to 2009. Membership of the AOM Organizational Development and Change Division, and the Organizational Behaviour Division (and AOM conference paper reviewer)

·        European Academy of Management (EURAM) membership 2008 to 2009.

·        British Academy of Management (BAM) membership 2004 to 2009 (and BAM conference paper reviewer)

·        Directorship position on the Council of Management for The UK Complexity Society, March 2006 – November 2007.

·        A Founder Member of the UK Complexity Society 2004 to 2009.